Junagadh – A walk through history and folklores at Uparkot Fort

Junagadh is an exciting town to explore for the tourists with an eye for architecture and a taste for history. It was an important city during the regimes of Mauryean and Gupta dynasties in 300 to 200 BC and early AD. Post-independence, it was again in prominence and tested the skills of ‘Iron-will’ Sardar Patel, when its eccentric nawab refused to merge his small state with India and insisted to be part of Pakistan. Pages after pages of Indian history books are filled with references to this town as it refused to fade out from the memories of both the time and the history.

Junagadh’s places of tourist interest are all in a fairly compact busy market area. It is fun to amble through its narrow streets that reveal their hidden pan-Indian treasure at every corner – the sight of the skyline broken by the domes, Disneylandish spiraling minarets, old Buddhist caves, Jain and Hindu temples, bold gothic archways, an old fort, the mansion of the nawab and many intricately carved wooden doors and windows. The rich cultural heritage of Junagadh is evident in its landmarks that have the political and religious influence of its various rulers.

However, I remember Junagadh more as a town of simple and honest people.

I started to get positive vibes while planning the trip itself. I discussed my travel plans with Jwalant, who belongs to Saurashtra region and is my co-passenger in the office bus most of the time. I consulted him for a decent accommodation in Junagadh. He suggested Leo Resort after enquiring his relatives in Junagadh and informed me that the hotel owner had offered a 10% discount. I got the final quote by email where they offered even higher discount on their own, a pleasant surprise!

As mentioned in an earlier post that at Anil Farm house, Sasan Gir, we hired a taxi and moved to our final destination – Junagadh. On the way we saw a river in the solitude with a peaceful surrounding. After clicking a few snaps we moved ahead. No one can really enjoy the beauty of a peaceful place with a driver eager to start again :-)

A peaceful place enroute, from Sasan-Gir to Junagarh

A peaceful place enroute, from Sasan-Gir to Junagarh

Midway, in a small town we saw a green-grocer and could not stop the temptation of buying some fruits from his colorful stall. After several trips to Europe, I have realized that how lucky Indians are; India is a land of fruits and vegetables, a variety of them available in all seasons.

Fruits! So many varieties, Sasan Gir to Junagarh

Fruits! So many varieties, Sasan Gir to Junagarh

When we were about to reach Junagadh, we saw some white stuff growing in the farm, it was only after a while that we realized that it was cotton. How can I forget that the India is the third largest producer of cotton after America and China and the lion’s share of Indian cotton production comes from Gujarat.

Cotton Fields near Junagarh

Cotton Fields near Junagarh

After entering the town we soon reached our destination – the Leo Resort. It was big, well maintained and immaculately clean. Such a luxurious resort in such a small town! It must be an ambitious project of its owner. All the buildings were two-storied with well-carpeted, spacious air-conditioned rooms having big balconies and big-spacious bathrooms with modern bath fittings.

Rachit Enjoying the resort

Rachit Enjoying the resort, Leo Resort, Junagarh

The resort had well maintained gardens with hammock chairs to enjoy the bright-sunny days of Gujarati winter. The recreational room had billiards table, chess and carom board. Rachit and I tried billiards and he thoroughly enjoyed his first rendezvous with the game.

Colorful Hookahs in one of the gardens, Leo Resort, Junagarh

Colorful Hookahs in one of the gardens, Leo Resort, Junagarh

The food was a disappointment. It was of the kind that is served in Delhi/NCR restaurants, where the taste of gravy dominates so much that naming the sabzi with closed eyes becomes a challenge! Perhaps the local guests who take their meal in Leo look for something ‘Hotelish’. After our first meal we invariably ordered the meals with very less oil and masala. The food that was served subsequent to such orders was better, except once when the cook thought that we were interested in having a boiled meal :-)

Once we ordered Bread and butter, costing Rs 25, and when a waiter brought precisely three nicely decorated bread pieces in a tray, it appeared more of a precious souvenir than something to devour.
In toto, Leo resort is a luxurious resort, but it seemed to lack something. Perhaps, they call it a character :-)

We started exploring the town with a visit to the Fort of Uperkot. It is the same fort from which Junagadh has derived its name. To help readers comprehend the historical events and their dates, I am listing down in chronological order. Although in the post they appear in the order as I visited them.
2nd-4th century – Buddhist cave complex
7th century – Fort abandoned
9th century – Chudasama dynasty gained control over Junagadh
10th century – Fort was rebuilt
11th century – Navgahan Kuva
12th century- Story of Rani Ranak Devi
15th century- Defeat of Raja Mandlik III
16th century – Defeat of Bahadur Shah

The imposing fortified citadel of Uperkot is located on a plateau in the middle of the town. The town and the Fort were abandoned in the 7th century. The Fort remained abandoned for three centuries and when it was re-discovered in 10th century, it was completely overgrown by jungles.

The Rajput dynasty Chudasama gained control over Junagadh by 875 AD and realized the defensive importance of this old fort and transformed it into an impregnable fortress with 65 feet high walls and a 300 ft deep moat around it. The current appearance of this fort is mainly the result of rebuilding and reconstruction under Chudasama’s guidance. Over the period of thousand years this fort has been besieged as many as 16 times and one such siege lasted for around twelve years.

An ornate triple gateway forms the entrance to the fort; crossing a few temples on a cobbled pathway that leads upward, we reached to the summit of the raised fort. I believe that one can truly enjoy the visits to historical monuments only when one knows the history behind them and can relate to it. At the summit there were two canons; standing there and looking at the city below, I was contemplating to take the services of a knowledgeable guide. However, it is easier said than done as most of the guides lack credibility.

A young boy offered to assist us. I was looking for an expert so I did not show much interest. But, I realized that the other guide has stopped asking us as he did not want to compete with that boy. After all, Junagadh is a utopian place with no cut throat competition. I was forced to take his services – a decision that I didn’t regret.

The boy started with the two canons kept there. Can canons also have a history behind them? These two definitely have one …or maybe I am a history buff who looks for history behind everything, a tag that everyone from Nandan, my wife, to my young kid Rachit tries to put on me. I try to be polite towards these allegations, but I am sure, they were never good at history ;-)

In the early sixteenth century, when Portuguese arrived on the western coast of India, Bahadur Shah was ruling Saurashtra. Initially Bahadur Shah was able to thwart any Portuguese attempt to occupy Indian Territory. Soon he got in conflict with the Mughal Emperor Humayun, probably after Bahadurshah’s attack on Chittorgarh. Humayun inflicted heavy losses on him and his empire was repeatedly pounded by incessant barrage of Mughal attacks.

Pressed hard by the Mughals at one side and the Portuguese at another, he made a peace pact with the Portuguese. The Portuguese agreed to assist him against Humayun and in exchange Bahadur Shah accepted their rule on a part of Diu and allowed them to construct a fortress. He had unwittingly provided them a foothold.

In the meantime, Mughal threat receded as Humayun got engaged in battles with the smart and shrewd Shershah. Bahadurshah seized the opportunity and tried to regain his strength. And then he realized his mistake in allowing the Portuguese to build the fortress as by that time the Portuguese had a complete control on Diu.

Bahadurshah got support from Turkey and a Turkish fleet arrived on the coast of Gujarat in an attempt to expel Portuguese and to reestablish the trade between India and Turkey. These two canons Neelam and Manek were brought by that convoy, led by Suleiman. The canons were cast in Egypt in 1531. Neelam the larger among the two is 17 feet long.

Story of Neelam and Manek, Uparkot Fort, Junagarh

Story of Neelam and Manek, Uparkot Fort, Junagarh

One day the Portuguese anchored their ship on the coast of Gujarat and invited Bahadurshah for a peace treaty. Bahadurshah boarded it, but never returned. He was killed on the ship and his body was thrown into the Arabian Sea. These two canons are witness to that lost war, the beguiling way in which Bahadurshah was ensnared and to the Portuguese occupation on Diu that lasted from 1538 till 1961. This is an example of a long saga of small accession allowed by local Indian kings to imperial powers eventually leading to colonial rule.

The two canons are facing the abandoned Jammi-Masjid. Jammi Masjid’s courtyard has a roof with three octagonal openings. It is better to call it the Palace of Rani Ranak devi as this structure and its 140 pillars are of her palace. Today, nothing much interesting of that palace is left except the folklores associated with the palace. Those of you who have been reading my posts know about my obsession of history and folklores :-)

Rani Ranakdevi's Palace, Uparkot Fort, Junagarh

Rani Ranakdevi’s Palace, Uparkot Fort, Junagarh

The boy, our guide, narrated the story of Rani Ranakdevi that sounded like Indian Trojan war; just that it was much more dramatic. Read on.

Rani Ranakdevi was an abandoned child whom a family of potter adopted and took care of her as their own child. She grew up into a very beautiful woman. A team of bards noticed her and told about her beauty to the Solanki ruler ‘Siddhraj Jaisinh’ – a famous ruler of Ahilwad Patan who ruled from 1094 to 1143 AD. After listening about her beauty from the bards Siddhraj got impatient to marry her. Meanwhile, Ranakdevi got married to Raja Rakhengar, the ruler of Junagadh. When it came to Siddhraj’s knowledge, he attacked Junagadh.

The army of Junagadh strongly defended the fort and the siege continued for twelve years, yes for twelve years. By then Rani became proud mother of two kids.

Raja Rakhengar had two nephews – Desal and Visal. He looked after them as his own kids. As they grew, they became ambitious and conspired against him. They hid armed enemy’s troop in the sack and loaded them on the carts and reached the entrance of the fort. When the guards on duty questioned them, they got angry. They told the guards about the difficulties by which they could procure food for the residents and scolded them for asking unnecessary questions. The two brothers then ordered them to open the gates of the fort. As the carts entered the fort, the defenses of the fort collapsed. Raja Rakhengar was caught, murdered & beheaded and Rani Ranakdevi was captured.

It is believed that Mt Girnar was very big at that time and Rani Ranakdevi used to worship it. When Rani was forcibly taken away she became very angry and cursed Mt Girnar – “O, Girnar, are you blind? Do you not see your queen’s doom? How will you keep your head high after it? It started a terrible avalanche that threatened to tear the mountain apart. It mellowed Rani and she said, “Enough Girnar! Please do not destroy yourself”. Her words miraculously stopped the avalanche.

Mt Girnar from Rani Ranakdevi’s Palace, Uparkot Fort, Junagarh

Mt Girnar from Rani Ranakdevi’s Palace, Uparkot Fort, Junagarh

When Siddhraj Jaisinh was returning victorious, Desal and Visal requested him to declare them his new vassal and to coronate them. Siddhraj was in no mood to reward the two traitors who conspired against their own uncle. He told them coldly, “You were not loyal to your own uncle, so how could I trust you”? He then ordered their execution.

The victorious caravan of Jaisinh reached Wadhavan, a nearby village, with the Rani and the head of Rakhengar as the memento of their victory. Rani Ranakdevi was pleading to commit sati. At Wadhavan, Jaisinh had a nightmare and he decided to allow her. But he put the condition that no one would fire her pyre and told her, “If you are as pious as you say, then ask God to light your pyre”.

She sat on the pyre with her husband’s head. Suddenly there was lightening in the sky that burnt the pyre. Today there is a temple dedicated to the sati in Wadhavan, Saurashtra. It is believed that a river Bhogavo, used to flow around that village that became waterless after her curse.

The legend of Ranakdevi is the favorite fable of the Gujarati bards.

Intricate carving in Rani’s Palace, Uparkot Fort, Junagarh

Intricate carving in Rani’s Palace, Uparkot Fort, Junagarh

The residence of Ranakdevi was converted into mosque by Muhammad Begada after his conquest of Junagadh. He defeated Chudasama ruler Raja Mandlik III in 1473. Our guide narrated a story that how Mandlik’s doomsday was prophesied much earlier by a Brahmin lady.

Nagbai, a Charan (Brahmin) lady, considered Mandlik III like his brother. Once on the festival of Rakshabandhan, she went to tie rakhi on Raja’s hand. She wanted to put vermilion on his forehead. But, whenever she tried to do so Raja turned his head away. Nagbai tried several times but failed while everyone started to laugh at her. The unkind act of Raja made her furious and she cursed him, prophesying that he would lose his kingdom and Mohammedans would rule where Chudasama’s exercised authority so long.

The prophecy came true in AD 1473 when Mahmud Begada invaded Junagadh; Raja Mandlik was defeated and had to embrace Islam. Mahmud renamed Junagadh as Mahmudabad but the new name remained only for a short time.

With this victory of Mahmud, the rule of Sultans and Nawabs started in Junagadh.

Raja Mandlik and Junagadh are closely associated with the spiritual pride of Gujarat, the enlightened saint Narsinh Mehta, who is also known as the आदिकवि (first poet) of the Gujarati language. There are many accounts associated with this great saint, as how Lord Krishna helped him in his difficult times and looked after his family.

Raja Mandlik once got Narsi Mehta arrested on the complaints of some people, who were jealous of his growing popularity, and asked him to prove his innocence by making lord garland him. Narsi started to sing Lord Krishna’s bhajan in front of a Krishna temple and a miracle happened. The temple doors opened and a garland that was previously on Lord Krihsna’s idol, propitiously fell round the neck of Narsi. The king realized that he was not an ordinary person and fell at Narsi’s feet.

It may not be common knowledge that Mahatma Gandhi’s favorite bhajan “वैष्णव जन तो तेने कहीन्ये”, that become synonymous to him, was in-fact composed by this revered saint. I am including the bhajan here to enjoy its beauty.
वैष्णव जन तो तेने कहीन्ये, पीड़ पराई जाने रे,
पर दुख उपकारकरे तोये, मन अभिमान ना आने रे|
सकल लोकमां सहुने वन्दै, निंदा ना करे केनी रे,
वाच काछ मन निश्चल राखे, धन-धन जननी तेरी रे|
समदृष्टि ने तृष्णा त्यागी, परस्त्री जेने मात रे,
जिहवा थाकी असत्य ना बोले, परधन नव झाले हाथ रे|
मोह माया व्यापे नही जेने, दृढ़ वैराग्य जेने मनमां रे,
राम नाम सुताली लागी, सकल तीरथ तेने तनमां रे|
वणलॊभी ने कपट रहीत जे, काम-क्रोध निवार्या रे,
वाने नर्सियों तेनू दर्शन करता, कुण एकोतेर तार्या रे|

[A true “Vaishnav” is the one, who feels the plight of others,
He helps others, but does not let pride enter his mind
He worships everybody in the world and does not criticize anybody.
He keeps his mind and tongue in control.
Mother of such a person is blessed.
He sees everything equally, rejects greed and considers someone else’s wife as his mother
He never speaks lie and does not touch others valuables.
He does not succumb to worldly attachments,
He has been addicted to the elixir coming by the name of Ram,
He has no greed and deceit, and has renounced desires and anger,
All holy places are in the body and mind of such a person.
The poet Narsi will like to see such a person, by whose virtue, the entire family gets salvation]

We moved out of Ranakdevi’s palace and reached an old Buddhist cave complex. It was for the first time, I was seeing caves so old. These caves are dug into a hillside and were used by Buddhist monks. They have decorated pillars, entrances almost of the size of the modern doors, windows, assembly hall, and cells for meditation; it looked like an ideal place for learning and self-reflection in solitude.

The three-tiered Buddhist cave complex, Uparkot, Junagarh

The three-tiered Buddhist cave complex, Uparkot, Junagarh

The cave group has been quarried in three tiers in a manner that even the lowest tier is also well-lit and ventilated.

Well-lit and ventilated lowest floor, Buddhist caves, Uparkot, Junagarh

Well-lit and ventilated lowest floor, Buddhist caves, Uparkot, Junagarh

The upper floor had a deep square hole at centre with verandahs and spaces for balcony sitting known as Kakshasanas. The floor was clean and smooth, giving a feel of a mud house.

The upper-floor of Buddhist cave complex, Uparkot, Junagarh

The upper-floor of Buddhist cave complex, Uparkot, Junagarh

The lowest tier had meditation cells, a corridor and carved pillars.

Meditation Cells, Buddhist cave Complex, Uparkot, Junagarh

Meditation Cells, Buddhist cave Complex, Uparkot, Junagarh

The base and the shaft of these pillars and the walls around carry the decorative designs of figures, flowers and foliage. Time has taken its toll on these semi-reliefs and today only a faint outline of these motifs can be seen.

Only a faint outline is visible

The excavation of debris accumulated over the top tier of these caves has revealed potteries and coins datable to around the 3rd and the 4th century. The top was the last phase of excavation, hinting that the earlier caves were hollowed out at least one or two centuries earlier, giving an excavation date circa second century AD.

There are two more cave complexes – Khapra Khodia caves and Baba Pyara caves, but we didn’t visit them.

Next in line were – Adi-Kadi Vav and Navghan Kuwo – the water-temples of medieval India. Our guide boy was sharing the local wisdom – “अडी-कड़ी वाव ए नव्गहन कुवो, जे ना जोयो, ऐ जीवत मुओ” meaning that the one who has not seen the Adi-Kadi vav and Navghan Kuwo has lost a great chance in his life.

Adi-Kadi vav, a man made canyon carved out of virgin rocks, is around 81 meter long, 4.75 meter wide and around 41 m deep. It is difficult to date it, but it is definitely among the earliest step-wells of our country. There were no ornamental designs but the rock stratum along the side walls gave it stunning looks.

Stunning Rock-stratum of Adi-Kadi Vav, Uparkot, Junagarh

Stunning Rock-stratum of Adi-Kadi Vav, Uparkot, Junagarh

I find it more plausible that this well was dug on this plateau to store rain water, but folklore goes that it was dug to find the ground water.

Impressive Ad-kadi ni vav, Uparkot, Junagarh

Impressive Ad-kadi ni vav, Uparkot, Junagarh

Initially, even after digging deep, there was no water. The royal priest informed the king that water would flow only when two unmarried young girls were sacrificed. Two servant girls of the king, Adi and Kadi, offered themselves and with their sacrifice, the prophecy was fulfilled and water erupted from the ground. Today colorful clothes and bangles are hung on a tree in the memory of the two sisters.

I would like to digress a little here. It is ok till it is folklore; else such shameful belief on black magic and human and animal sacrifice is appalling as well as reprehensible.

I walked down those primitive 162 steps to have a look at the water in the Vav (step well). It was very dirty with all sort of modern garbage thrown into it. I wonder can these old water temples be given a fresh lease of life, or will they die a slow death, that too, at a time when we have realized the importance of rain water harvesting and also the importance of reviving the old water-harvesting systems…

Impressive adi kadi vav with a small window above the well-shaft, littered with plastic and debris and dying a slow death, Uparkot, Junagarh

Impressive adi kadi vav with a small window above the well-shaft, littered with plastic and debris and dying a slow death, Uparkot, Junagarh

Next, we went towards the Navghan Kuwo – a dramatically deep well cut into the natural soft rock. It is named after Navghan-I, Chudasama ruler who ruled over Junagadh in 1060 AD. There is a 10 feet wide passage that surrounds the well shaft and winds down to a depth of around 120 feet. The stairs are lit and cooled by an array of small square openings. We skipped going down as Tanmay was not looking well.

Navghan Kuwo, Uparkot, Junagarh

Navghan Kuwo, Uparkot, Junagarh

Deep wells always leave me scared and my heart beat increases whenever I look into them. Am I suffering from bathophobia? I once read a person’s view who was suffering from acrophobia. He clarified that it was not the height that scare him, what scare him was the continuous thought that come to his mind to jump from there. It’s almost the same feeling :-)

Next to that rock-cut cistern was a large granary that would have allowed the fort occupants to withstand extended siege.

It ended our trip of the fort of Uperkot. It was time for the guide-boy to leave. He was patient, allowed us to take our own sweet time and never pushed us to hurry. Towards the end the boy told us that he was working as a guide to earn some extra money to pay his school fees. I doubted it and thought it to be a way to rouse emotions to get extra money. As soon I paid him, he politely thanked us and smilingly departed. I think he was genuine.

It was time for lunch. We walked to the Kalwa Chowk. There at Patel Restaurant we ordered two thalis and told the waiter that the kid would be sharing food with us. After our meal, the owner told me the amount to pay. On a request for the breakup of the bill, the waiter explained it to the owner and added that as the kid has also shared the meal, so he has charged for an extra half thali.

Kalwa Chowk, Junagarh

Kalwa Chowk, Junagarh

It was enough to make the owner angry. He apologized and asked us to pay for the two. After the payment, as I moved ahead. I heard him scolding the waiter in Gujarati and warning him never to charge for a kid sharing a thali.

Commendable.

27 Comments

  • Junagadh says:

    Hi,

    Mine Tour of Junagadh, before one week during maha shivaratri festival was also unforgettable.

    Junagadh is really one of the great historical place in gujarat.

    Jay Saurashtra…

    Shilpa Shah

    • Manish khamesra says:

      It’s my pleasure Shilpa that you enjoyed the post. There is no doubt that this small town has a very interesting history behind it.

      Thanks for leaving your comment.

  • sagarone says:

    Great detailed report. I visited Junagadh couple of years back. Your post made me remember my visit. Since I belong to Saurashtra, I really appreciated your taking an active interest in and recording the folklores. Great work!!!

    • Manish khamesra says:

      :-) Thanks Sagarone. Its a pleasure to take you back once more to the Fort of Uparkot. I love folklores and to share them is a pleasure.

  • Mahesh Semwal says:

    Dear Manish,

    Great , Awesome, wow!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • Manish khamesra says:

    Thanks Mahesh. Its a pleasure to get an appreciation from you.

  • mala says:

    Hi Manish,

    A very detailed and interesting post. Haven’t been to Gujrat ever, your post makes me want to visit Junagarh for starters…thanks, going by your post i feel a novice like me, can reach the place and get enthralled in the amazing history of the place.

    hanks,
    Mala

  • Nandan Jha says:

    MK – Its taking me more time to read your stuff since I wait for that golden uninterrupted moment which gets hard to find.

    Brilliant.

    If the ignorance of history in that detail in some of us, motivates you to write such beautiful account, I would cherish the ignorance. :-) Go on.

    This piece has benefited from extensive research, a great deal of hard work and a humongous amount of plain simple effort in penning it down, bravo, we are so privileged at Ghumakkar to be able to read this.

    Where do we go next ?

    • Manish khamesra says:

      ;-) – It was leg-pulling for fun. Your comments are always encouraging and in rare case, if not, I can ignore them as well but I don’t know how can I ignore the other two, Rachit and Jaishree, who are constantly making fun of me. According to Rachit, if I have to tell an story in English I will start with what is A, B, … how sentences are formed and so on. “Papa makes it long and very boring, Hain naa mummy :-)”, is his innocent comment on my stories.

      And listening it brings a broad smile on Jaishree’s face. That smile speaks for itself – even kids understand the very basic fault in your writing and for God’s sake please learn from his criticism. And I , still in my not-so-old-age, feeling the heat of generation gap(after all his is even younger generation of tweets) and a critic in my own home, continues …

      Where do we go next is also a difficult question to answer when the plan is to remain in Junagadh only, for that last one more look at the town ;-)

      On serious note, I enjoyed knowing more about Junagadh and getting a pat on the back increases the pleasure. Thanks Nandan.

  • Patrick Jones says:

    Detailed historical accounts can sometime be quite boring, but not if written by Manish. Your patience to listen to the stories and to reproduce them in an interesting manner with appropriate photographs is commendable.

    Yeah, felt like sitting under the solitary tree by the side of the river to enjoy the beauty of a peaceful place. And that is one of the reasons why some of us are self-driven! Right, NJ?

    • Manish khamesra says:

      Thanks Patrick. I feel that these stories is the starting point to know more about people of the place, their culture and to look into our own past, sometimes so glorious and sometimes so mean, so deplorable …

    • Finally the tubelight is On :-) I was not able to understand the second part of your comment and it is only after this re-emphasis on self driven by Nandan that I understood it.

      Yup. It seems to be a place where you like to be and in summers sitting there, listening SD Burman would have blessing effects on the soul.

      ‘self-driven’ – Its a luxury not available to everyone, some people are always ‘Taxi/bus/train/Tonga’ driven ;-)

  • Nandan Jha says:

    I like that, self-driven :-)

  • Manish,

    A great and very enjoyable post ! Particularly the Ranakdevi story. Thanks for bringing such lovely folklores and legends to us.

    Lothal, one of the prominent Indus Valley site lost its glory and the status of being port city only because the nearby Bhogavo river dried up. The folklore does maintain this memory of dried river, but that happened several hundred years before.

    I was wondering if you did not come across the Junagadh rock inscriptions of King Ashoks 14 edicts.

    -Manisha

    • Thanks Manisha for providing information about Bhogavo, very interesting. I was aware about Lothal, but not that it was situated around river Bhogavo. We are learning.

      I have covered Junagadh’s rock inscriptions in my previous post :-) Please have a look, I wish that I will not disappoint you. I will look forward to your comment on it.

      Thanks again for leaving the comment and the encouragement.

    • Manisha,

      I checked the net to understand the connection between Bhogavo river and abandoning of Lothal.

      You are right in pointing out that Lothal was situated on the banks of a tributary of Bhogavo river that joined Sabarmati river and then fell into gulf of Khambat.

      But I did not come across suggestion that Lothal was abandoned because river Bhogavo dried. On the contrary many archaeologist feels that the probable reason Lothal was abandoned was due to frequent floods.

      Thanks to your comment, I know more about Lothal now.

  • hemant p joglekar says:

    dear mk,
    several thoughts resulting from your informative and at the same time enjoyable post. 1) local history such as this post should be taught at some stage in local schools. 2)Citizen groups should be formed in every district .. to take care of SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE ie information and sites and relics of our past.
    Thanks for the thoroughly enjoyable travelogue.

  • Dear Hemant,

    Its very interesting suggestion. I agree with you that making local people aware of their rich history and past helps them to understand the importance of their inheritance and also helps them to stop any kind of vandalism and to contribute in improving things.

    Thanks Hemant for going through these posts and also giving thought provoking creative ideas.

  • Exhaustive coverage supplemented with good photographs.

  • Giriraj Shekhawat says:

    Excellent post with lot of historical garnish
    Adi kadi vav was stunning …….. and looks quite natural, although man made, with the ridges on the walls depicting the characteristics of sedimentary rock … or sandstone. The folklore attached to the story was very enticing ……….. surely can turn out to be a motion picture extravaganza

    Nice story with excellent pictures and good research work

    • Manish Khamesra says:

      Thanks Giriraj. Its a pleasure that you enjoyed reading about Junagadh.

      I agree with you that Adi-Kadi vav is quite impressive. In-fact the pictures have not come so impressive as was the cave. I feel aghast at the idea of human sacrifice and glorifying it sounds equally bad. I am proud of importance given to a life in Indian philosophy, so sincerely wish that it is nothing more than a lore.

  • Kuldeepsinh Chudasama says:

    Thanks, for sharing history of chudasama as well as junagadh . . U done a great job . . Keep doing such things . . i enjoyed lot . . I gained more knowlege about chudasamas and junagadh . . . Its pleasure to me man!!

  • manish dayora says:

    like.

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